When a near-win outcome occurs on a slot machine, stimuli presented resemble those
presented when money is won, but no money is won. Research has shown that gamblers
prefer and play for longer on slot machines that present near wins. One explanation for this
is that near wins are conditioned reinforcers. If so, near wins would produce longer latencies
to the next response than clear losses. Another explanation is that near wins produce
frustration; if so, then near wins would produce shorter response latencies.
Daly, T.E., Tan, G., Hely, L., Macaskill, A.C., Harper, D.N. & Hunt, M.J. (2015). Slot machine near wins: Effects on pause and sensitivity to win ratios. Analysis of Gambling Behavior, 8(2), 55-70. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/pr7dbuk.